Counter Revolutionary Warfare (CRW). An Appraisal

PARATUS DEFENCE ANALYSTS AND CONSULTANTS LIMITED

Monograph 15: Counter Revolutionary Warfare (CRW): An Appraisal

INTRODUCTION

Counter-revolutionary warfare (CRW) has become more prominent in recent years. Whilst there are a number of published works on individual CRW units, there are no comprehensive works bringing together in one place summaries of publicly available information on such organisations.

This publication contains brief summaries of open-source information on Counter-Revolutionary Warfare organisations throughout the world.

The information is current as of 2004.

CONTENTS

The format of the monograph is separate country chapters, followed by a list of some major terrorist incidents which have occurred in recent years.

Any corrections or additions are to be addressed to the directors, Paratus Defence Analysts and Consultants Limited.

COUNTRIES

ABU DHABI
AFGHANISTAN
AJMAN
ALBANIA
ALGERIA
AMERICAN SAMOA
ANDORRA
ANGOLA
ANGUILLA
ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
ARGENTINA
ARMENIA
ARUBA
AUSTRALIA
AUSTRIA
AZERBAIJAN
BAHAMAS
BAHRAIN
BANGLADESH
BARBADOS
BELARUS
BELGIUM
BELIZE
BENIN
BERMUDA
BHUTAN
BOLIVIA
BOPHUTHATSWANA
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA
BOTSWANA
BRAZIL
BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS
BRUNEI
BULGARIA
BURKINA FASO
BURMA
BURUNDI
CAMBODIA
CAMEROON
CANADA
CAPE VERDE
CAYMAN ISLANDS
CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC
CHAD
CHILE
CHINA, COMMUNIST
CHINA, REPUBLIC OF
CISKEI
COLOMBIA
COMOROS
CONGO
COOK ISLANDS
COSTA RICA
COTE D’ IVOIRE
CROATIA
CUBA
CYPRUS
CYPRUS, NORTHERN
CZECH
DENMARK
DJIBOUTI
DOMINICA
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC
DUBAI
EASTER ISLAND
ECUADOR
EGYPT
EL SALVADORE
EQUATORIAL GUINEA
ERITREA
ESTONIA
ETHIOPIA
FALKLAND ISLANDS
FAROE ISLANDS
FIJI
FINLAND
FRANCE
FRENCH GUIANA
FRENCH POLYNESIA
FUJAIRAH
GABON
GAMBIA
GEORGIA
GERMANY
GHANA
GIBRALTER
GREECE
GREENLAND
GRENADA
GUADELOUPE
GUAM
GUATEMALA
GUERNSEY
GUINEA
GUINEA-BISSAU
GUYANA
HAITI
HONDURAS
HONG KONG
HUNGARY
ICELAND
INDIA
INDONESIA
IRAN
IRAQ
IRELAND
ISRAEL
ITALY
JAMAICA
JAPAN
JERSEY, STATES OF
JORDAN
KAZAKHSTAN
KENYA
KIRGIZIA
KIRIBATI
KOREA
KOREA, NORTH
KUWAIT
LAOS
LATVIA
LEBANON
LESOTHO
LIBERIA
LIBYA
LIECHTENSTEIN
LITHUANIA
LUXEMBOURG
MACAO
MACEDONIA
MADAGASCAR
MALAWI
MALAYSIA
MALDIVES
MALI
MALTA
MANN, ISLE OF
MARSHALL ISLANDS
MARTINIQUE
MAURITANIA
MAURITIUS
MAYOTTE
MEXICO
MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF
MOLDOVA
MONACO
MONGOLIA
MONTEGRO
MONTSERRAT
MOROCCO
MOZAMBIQUE
NAMIBIA
NAURU
NEPAL
NETHERLANDS
NETHERLANDS ANTILLES
NEW ZEALAND
NEW CALEDONIA
NICARAGUA
NIGER
NIGERIA
NIUE
NORFOLK ISLAND
NORTHERN MARIANAS
NORWAY
OMAN
PAKISTAN
PALAU, REPUBLIC OF
PANAMA
PAPUA NEW GUINEA
PARAGUAY
PERU
PHILIPPINES
PITCAIRN ISLAND
POLAND
PORTUGAL
PUERTO RICO
QATAR
RAS AL-KHAIMAH
REUNION
ROMANIA
RUSSIA
RWANDA
ST HELENA
ST KITTS-NEVIS
ST LUCIA
ST PIERRE AND MIQUELON
ST VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES
SAN MARINO
SAÕ TOMÉ E PRINCIPE
SAUDI ARABIA
SENEGAL
SERBIA
SEYCHELLES
SHARJAH
SIERRA LEONE
SIKKIM
SINGAPORE
SLOVAKIA
SLOVENIA
SOLOMON ISLANDS
SOMALIA
SOUTH GEORGIA
SOUTH AFRICA
SPAIN
SRI LANKA
SUDAN
SURINAME
SWAZILAND
SWEDEN
SWITZERLAND
SYRIA
TAJIKISTAN
TANZANIA
THAILAND
TOGO
TOKELAU
TONGA
TRANSKEI
TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO
TUNISIA
TURKEY
TURKMENISTAN
TURKS AND CAICOS
TUVALU
UAE
UGANDA
UKRAINE
UMM AL QAIWAIN
UNITED KINGDOM
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
URUGUAY
US VIRGIN ISLANDS
USSR
UZBEKISTAN
VANUATU
VATICAN CITY STATE
VENDA
VENEZUELA
VIETNAM
WALLIS AND FUTUNA
WESTERN SAHARA
WESTERN SAMOA
YEMEN
YEMEN, SOUTH
YUGOSLAVIA
ZAIRE
ZAMBIA
ZIMBABWE


COUNTRY CHAPTERS

ABU DHABI

AFGHANISTAN

AJMAN

ALBANIA

ALGERIA

AMERICAN SAMOA

ANDORRA

ANGOLA

ANGUILLA

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

ARGENTINA

An anti-terrorist unit was established in the late 1990’s .

Police Task Force (CEPOC)
Police Task Force (CEPOC) of 1,000.

Halcon 8
Halcon 8 (Army).

ARMENIA

ARUBA

AUSTRALIA

Co-ordinator of anti-terrorist policies of Federal and State Governments was Brig Mackenzie-Orr .

Standing Advisory Committee on Commonwealth/State Co-operation for Protection Against Violence (SAC-PAV) established after the circa 1978 Protective Security Review, by Mr Justice Hope. The Committee, which meets six-monthly, has developed a National Anti-Terrorist Plan (NATP), which has been in place since 1979, and updated five times .

The Protective Services Coordination Centre (PSCC), a branch of the Justice Office of the Attorney-General’s Department, provides the executive and secretarial support to SACPAV . The PSCC under the Security Division of the Attorney-General’s Department . There is a Special Inter-Departmental Committee on Protection Against Violence (SIDC-PAV). A sub-group of this is the Special Incidents Task Force (SITF) .

A National Crisis Management Structure has been created. At the top is the Ministerial Group (Minister; minister’s senior adviser; Media centre) at Parliament House; then the State Crisis Committee (Ministers; advisers; Police Commissioner; Media liaison officer; liaison officers) in the Commonwealth Government Crisis Co-ordination Centre (Incident Co-ordination; SPTF; Information Centre; Media Liaison officer; liaison officers) in the responsible Government department; the Police Operations Centre (Police Commander; Media liaison officer) in Police Headquarters; and the Police Forward Command Post (Police Forward Commander; Media liaison officer) at the incident scene .

The Australian Federal Police (AFP) has set up a Special Operations Team (SOT); The ADF has set up a CT force: TAG; and the Department of Transport and Communications has an Aviation Security branch. Police have negotiation teams, bomb response teams, Investigation Units, PAG’s (i.e. Tactical Response Group; State Protection group; Special Operations Group, etc). They are equipped with DVP radios, etc; ‘Echidna’ remote vehicles, etc. All are SAC-PAV provided .

Australian Bureau of Criminal Intelligence was established 1981. Director was GB O’Neill .

Protective Services Co-ordination Centre
Director CT Co-ordination- Lindsay Hansch

ACT Police Armed Offenders Squad

South Australian Police Armed Offenders Apprehension Group

Tasmanian Police Armed Offenders Squad

Queensland Police Tactical Response Group

New South Wales Police Special Weapons Operations Squad, Sydney

New South Wales Police Tactical Response Group

AUSTRIA

Gendarmerie einsatz Kommando (Gendarmerie Special Unit), Bundesgendarmerie
Gendarmerie Special Unit, or Cobra Unit, of Bundesgendarmerie.

AZERBAIJAN

BAHAMAS

BAHRAIN

U-Group

BANGLADESH

BARBADOS

BELARUS

BELGIUM

Escadron Special D’Intervention (ESI), Royal Gendarmerie
National-level CT force . The ESI is Belgium’s principal counter-terrorist unit. Under the Ministry of Defence, although the unit carries out protection duties of senior government officials, and has an advisory role in suggesting methods of improving security for embassies abroad.

Played a major role in breaking up the Cellules Communistes (CCC), which emerged in 1984. Until then ESI was poorly funded and suffered from recruiting difficulties. Training and morale are now much improved .

BELIZE

BENIN

BERMUDA

BHUTAN

BOLIVIA

BOPHUTHATSWANA

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

BOTSWANA

BRAZIL

Projecto Talon
Projecto Talon (Army SF).

BRITISH VIRGIN ISLANDS

BRUNEI

BULGARIA

BURKINA FASO

BURMA

BURUNDI

CAMBODIA

CAMEROON

CANADA

CT recently handed over to Defence Force from the RCMP .

Emergency Response Teams (Police)

Quebec Police Force Security Service
Quebec Police Force Security Service (anti-terrorist) .

CAPE VERDE

CAYMAN ISLANDS

CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC

CHAD

CHILE

Grupo de Operaciones Especiales (GOPE)(Police)

Unidad Anti-Terrorist (UAT)(Police/Army)

FACH (Air Force)

CHINA, COMMUNIST

CHINA, REPUBLIC OF

CISKEI

COLOMBIA

Special Operations Group (GOES)(Police)

Anti-Extortion and Kidnapping Group (GAES)(Army)

GAJOA Teams (Air Force)

COMOROS

CONGO

COOK ISLANDS

COSTA RICA

COTE D’ IVOIRE

CROATIA

CUBA

CYPRUS

CYPRUS, NORTHERN

CZECH

DENMARK

Politiets Efterretningstejeneste (PE)(Police)

DJIBOUTI

DOMINICA

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC

DUBAI

EASTER ISLAND

ECUADOR

Puma Unit (Army)

EGYPT

Sa aqd

Force 777
US trained since 1981. 23 November 1985 26 under Colonel Ismail Abdel-Mawgood .

EL SALVADORE

EQUATORIAL GUINEA

ERITREA

ESTONIA

ETHIOPIA

FALKLAND ISLANDS

FAROE ISLANDS

FIJI

FINLAND

Osasto Karhu, Helsinki Police Department

FRANCE

Groupe d’Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale (GIGN)(Intervention Group)
Established 1973/74. 56-strong. Organised in 4 teams. 200 operations up to October 1981, released 483 hostages .

Established 1981. No more than 40. Purely anti-terrorist. Used 1980 in Chad, in hostage taking . 87 or 54-strong; Commander, Headquarters (5?), 4 teams of 12 (each two 5-man teams, plus 2 (1?) dog-handlers).

Formed 1973 under the Ministry of Defence. has powers of arrest, and carries out attacks on pure criminals as well as terrorists. Formed as a CT unit after it was realised that the police were incapable of handling effectively a major terrorist attack. Based at barracks near Paris, where all team members and their families live. Members are trained parachutists, scuba divers, climbers, and experts in shooting and hand-to-hand combat .

also- Special Security Group (?)

Special Operations Unit-Foreign Legion (SOE)
Known as ‘sauteurs opérationnels’, or ‘sauteurs ops’, within the Legion. Receive specialist training within the four combat companies of the LREP, of which it is a part.

element of 1er Régiment Etranger (1st Foreign Regiment), HQ Aubagne

Les CRAP (Commandos de recherche et áction dams la profondeur) (element of 2nd REP (2e Régiment Etranger de Parachutistes)

FRENCH GUIANA

FRENCH POLYNESIA

FUJAIRAH

GABON

GAMBIA

GEORGIA

GERMANY

Grentzschutzgruppe 9 (GSG-9)
HQ St.Augustin, near Bonn.

Spezialeinsatzkommando (SEK)
In each of the 10 Länder: 40-60 each.

Baden-Württenberg Police
Mobile Einsatzkommandos at Stuttgart and Freiburg. Prëzisionsschutzen Kommandos in the Landespolizeidirektionen. Spezialeinsatzkommando units in the Bereitschaftspolizei (Emergency Police) .

GHANA

GIBRALTER

GREECE

Emergency Squad, Gendarmerie

Dimoria Eidikon Apostolon (DEA Special Mission Platoon) Athens Police
50-strong . Special Security Group of the City Police. Established 1976 by the Ministry of Public Order. Resulted from the 1975 killing of Richard Welch, CIA Station Chief, Athens.

Unit is specially trained to combat politically-inspired terrorist acts, such as abduction, air piracy, holding of hostages, armed robbery, and assaults on public officials and foreign diplomats. Personnel guard public officials, embassies, public buildings, and other possible targets of terrorist attacks. They are organised in attack teams with SWAT capability, and are expert marksmen .

Also 2 anti-hijacking units at Athens and Thessaloniki Airports .

GREENLAND

GRENADA

GUADELOUPE

GUAM

GUATEMALA

GUERNSEY

GUINEA

GUINEA-BISSAU

GUYANA

HAITI

HONDURAS

Comando de Operaciones Espcciale (COE)
Comando de Operaciones Espcciale (COE)(Army SF).

HONG KONG

Police Special Duties Unit (SDU)

HUNGARY

ICELAND

INDIA

National Security Guards (Police)
500-strong.

Special Counter Terrorist Unit (STU), Special Frontier Force

INDONESIA

Satgas Gegana (Counter-terrorist Task Force)(Police)

Detachment 81 (Army SF)
Kopassus involved in 1981 hijack of Garuda airliner in Bangkok. Detachment 81 counter-terrorist unit named for this .

Sesatuan Gurita (Navy)

Satgas Atbara (Air Force)

IRAN

IRAQ

IRELAND

ISRAEL

Sayaret Matkal
Force from 35th Para Bde/Golani Brigade at Entebbe;

Unit 269
OC- Col Jonathan Netanyahu
Undertook Operation Thunderball. Unit 269 is similar in make-up to CRW group of the SAS .

Wrath of God

ITALY

Gruppi Interventi Speciali (GIS), Carabinieri
GIS comes under the Carabinieri’s Military Police. About 50-strong, and known, like NOCS, as ‘Leatherheads’ after their habit of wearing tight leather masks to cover their face and neck when in action. The masks serve as a disguise and provide some protection .

Detachment deployed in Tirana as part of Operation ‘Alba’ .

Nucleo Operativo Centrale do Sicurezza (NOCS), Public Security Guards
Formed after the Moro kidnapping in 1978. Element of the Public Security Guards. About 50-strong, known as ‘Leatherheads’ after their habit of wearing tight leather masks to cover their face and neck when in action. The masks serve as a disguise and provide some protection . Ten members of NOCS rescued General Dozier. Armed with M-12 burp guns. Emphasis on knowing enemy, and [takes] swift, silent missions. Uses sophisticated surveillance equipment .

Squad ‘R’ Anti-terrorist Commando
?

JAMAICA

JAPAN

Special Action Units (Police)

Japanese National Police Agency Special Assault Team to get military training as deterrent to embassy-type attacks. May be getting helicopters .
Police in Japan are to improve training for anti-terrorist forces .

JERSEY, STATES OF

JORDAN

KAZAKHSTAN

KENYA

Recce Company of the General Service Unit (GSU)(Police)

KIRGIZIA

KIRIBATI

KOREA

Counter-terrorist Special Attack Unit (Police)

707th Special Mission Battalion (Army)

?
1,000 trained for 7 years with France, Germany, and Delta Force, circa 1988 .

KOREA, NORTH

KUWAIT

LAOS

LATVIA

LEBANON

LESOTHO

LIBERIA

LIBYA

LIECHTENSTEIN

LITHUANIA

LUXEMBOURG

MACAO

MACEDONIA

MADAGASCAR

MALAWI

MALAYSIA

Unit Timpaan Khas (Special Strike Unit)
and/or Unit Indak Khas (Special Action Unit) (Police)

MALDIVES

MALI

MALTA

MANN, ISLE OF

MARSHALL ISLANDS

MARTINIQUE

MAURITANIA

MAURITIUS

MAYOTTE

MEXICO

MICRONESIA, FEDERATED STATES OF

MOLDOVA

MONACO

MONGOLIA

MONTEGRO

MONTSERRAT

MOROCCO

GIGN

MOZAMBIQUE

NAMIBIA

NAURU

NEPAL

NETHERLANDS

Brigade Speciale Beveilingensopdrechtn (BSB)
BBE established 1973; 80, under a Major: 14 in HQ, 2 groups of 33 (3 HQ, 4 teams of 5, 2 sniper sections of 5).

NETHERLANDS ANTILLES

NEW CALEDONIA

NEW ZEALAND

Anti-terrorist Squad (Police)
Established 1977. Three section drawn from Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch Armed Offenders Squads (AOS). Annual refresher courses, and monthly training sessions . Established 1978 with the SAS; CRW role . Some 30 members of the Armed Offenders Squads (formed 1964) selected for Anti-terrorist Squad . 30 drawn from Auckland, Wellington, and Christchurch Armed Offenders Squads (AOS). Equipped with MP-5 . About 12 members from all three centres were at Aramoana , under Superintendent Arthur Jones . Selected members of AOS were
in ATS- not called out during year ending 31 March 1988 . ATS not called out in year ending 31 March 1989 either .

Sources- O’Brien, Bill; Aramoana. Twenty-Two Hours of Terror; Penguin Books; 1991

Armed Offender’s Squads (AOS)
Formed 1964 . In year ending 31 March 1988 had 255 call-outs; 179 in all. Selected members were in ATS- not called out. Average of 16 per district . 262 call-out in 1988/89 year (ending 31/3/1989); average of 16 members- 56 in Auckland. 180 in AOS in all. ATS not called out .

NICARAGUA

NIGER

NIGERIA

NIUE

NORFOLK ISLAND

NORTHERN MARIANAS

NORWAY

Beredskapstrop (Readiness Troop)(Police)
National Police contribution to joint counter-terrorist force; with Army and Navy. 48-strong, divided into four 12-man squads, broken down further into five 2-man units with a small (2 man) HQ . An element of the National Police. military unit consists of HQ Section, and six 5-man commando squads. Part of joint CT force with Navy and Army .

OMAN

PAKISTAN

elements of Special Service Group (Army)

PALAU, REPUBLIC OF

PANAMA

PAPUA NEW GUINEA

PARAGUAY

PERU

PHILIPPINES

Light Reaction Force (Constabulary)

Integrated National Police Field Force (INPFF)

Aviation Security Command (AVESCOM)

Special Operations Group (Army Special Warfare Brigade)

PITCAIRN ISLAND

POLAND

PORTUGAL

Grupo de Operacoes Especiais (The Special Operations Group), Policia de Segurance Publica

PUERTO RICO

QATAR

RAS AL-KHAIMAH

REUNION

ROMANIA

Anti-terrorist force of 1,000 .

RUSSIA

200-strong Russian Alpha anti-terrorist group transferred from Presidential Security Service to Federal Security Service (FSB). Taking all anti-terrorist groups under control .

RWANDA

ST HELENA

ST KITTS-NEVIS

ST LUCIA

ST PIERRE AND MIQUELON

ST VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES

SAN MARINO

SAÕ TOMÉ E PRINCIPE

SAUDI ARABIA

Special Security Forces, National Guard
600+ in 1979 . SSF now 500 . Special Force, a General Directorate of Interior Ministry. With helicopters, etc . CT Unit (with helicopters), with Ministry of Interior .

SENEGAL

SERBIA

SEYCHELLES

SHARJAH

SIERRA LEONE

SIKKIM

SINGAPORE

Police Tactical Team

SLOVAKIA

SLOVENIA

SOLOMON ISLANDS

SOMALIA

SOUTH GEORGIA

SOUTH AFRICA

Special Task Force (Police)

SPAIN

Grupo Especiale Para Los Operaciones (GEO)(Policia Nacional (National Police))
Grupo Especiale Para Los Operaciones of the Policia Nacional ‘Unidad Especial de Intervention’ (UEI) . Recruited from and run by the civilian police. Undergo training similar to the SAS. Has had some considerable success against ETA and right-wing groups .

Grupse Antiterroristao Rurales (GAR)(Anti-terrorist Special Group)(Guardia Civil)

SRI LANKA

element of Army Commando Squadron

SUDAN

144th Counter-Terrorist Unit (CTU) , or 144th Parachute Battalion .

SURINAME

SWAZILAND

SWEDEN

National Rescue Unit, Stockholm

?
1987 proposal by Parliamentary committee, for an anti-terrorist force of 50 .

SWITZERLAND

Enzian Unit, Zurich

Stern Unit, Bern

SYRIA

TAJIKISTAN

TANZANIA

THAILAND

‘Special Unit’ (Air Force)

Also ‘Units’ in the Police; Army SF; 1st Army Division; and Navy SEAL’s.

TOGO

TOKELAU

TONGA

TRANSKEI

TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO

TUNISIA

Groupement de Commando, Garde Nationale
100-strong .

TURKEY

Ozel Antithar Kommando Bolugu

TURKMENISTAN

TURKS AND CAICOS

TUVALU

UAE

UGANDA

UK security experts training 20 Ugandan police to form the nucleus of the country’s first anti-terrorist unit .

UKRAINE

UMM AL QAIWAIN

UNION OF SOVIET SOCIALIST REPUBLICS

Alpha Group, KGB
20-strong. Officers refused to storm Parliament.

UNITED KINGDOM

PT-17, Metropolitan Police
Anti-terrorist branch-30 or 56-strong . D-11 established 1975. About 1978 Bomb Squad absorbed into the new Anti-Terrorist Squad (C-13) .

HQ Mobile Support Unit, Royal Ulster Constabulary Special Branch
A CT team .

E4a Unit, Royal Ulster Constabulary

Comacchio Group, Royal Marines
Formed May 1980 within the Royal Marines, to provide special forces to guard off-shore oil installations in the North Sea. As an additional task, detachments are rotated through the Clyde submarine base at faslane, to guard against sabotage. Their role has recently been expanded to include ship assaults to counter terrorist attacks. All ships under the British flag have been reconnoitred by men from Comacchio.

The Group is based in Abroath and currently numbers 400 officers and men, under the command of the Major General Royal Marines Training, Reserve and Special Forces Royal Marines, who has his HQ in Royal Marines, Eastney, Hampshire. Operational control in the event of an attack on an oil rig rests with the local Chief of Police. Comacchio would assist the Civil Power only at the formal written request of the police and with the approval of Ministers .

Established 1981 due to threats to oil installations. Training to recapture oil rigs; including SBS members and RM snipers. Also guarding of nuclear convoys-ex-RM role (rotated on standby). Two companies now-P (Penal) Company- nuclear convoy escort work; [primarily] anti-terrorist .

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

US Joint Staff deputy director for combatting terrorism-Brig Genl James Conway

Hostage Rescue Team, FBI (HRT)

SWAT Teams, FBI
Each field office of the FBI has at least one SWAT team-usually several- recently trained at Quantico to deal with snipers and urban guerrilla situations; part-time .
also ? US Marshall’s Service
also ? National Parks Police
also ? Nuclear Emergency Search Team (NEST), Department of Energy (DoE)

Department of Defence Deputy Directorate for Combatting Terrorism. Under Brig General James Conway .

Operation Blue Light
Established 1977 from 40 members seconded from the 5th SF group . In 1978 ‘Blue Light’ established, with 40 men from 5th Special Forces Group. Never got off ground.

1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (known as Delta Force)
HQ, Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

URUGUAY

Quick Reaction Unit (Police)
Branch of Montevideo Police. Undertakes operations against dissidents and guerrillas .

US VIRGIN ISLANDS

USSR

UZBEKISTAN

VANUATU

VATICAN CITY STATE

VENDA

VENEZUELA

Special Intervention Brigade

VIETNAM

WALLIS AND FUTUNA

WESTERN SAHARA

WESTERN SAMOA

YEMEN

YEMEN, SOUTH

YUGOSLAVIA

ZAIRE

ZAMBIA

ZIMBABWE

TERRORIST INCIDENTS

1976- 3 February: Djibouti. School bus containing 31, mainly French, children, and driver. Takem near Djibouti Air Base, by four terrorists. Driven to Somali border, stopped 200 yards away. Attacked (next day?) by Foreign Legion and police. Six terrorists killed (two reinforcements from Somalia), along with one girl. 29 children freed (five injured). Driver, a woman welfare worker, and Foreign Legion lieutenant wounded. Foreign Legion drew fire from Somalia. A Somali also killed.

1976-July: Entebbe. Air France Boeing.
21 December-Vienna. Sunday, 11.40 am. OPEC offices in building guarded by a single policeman and an elderly Austrian doorman seized. Doorman fatally shot. A few minutes later building was surrounded and entered by Austrian police. In the shooting that followed, an OPEC economist and an Iraqi security guard were killed. One terrorist and a delegate wounded.

1977- Mogadishu.
1979- Ankara.
1982- Stansted.
1985- Istanbul.
Curacao.
November-Malta. Egyptair Boeing. 59 killed.

1986- 5 September-Karachi. Pam Am Boeing 747. 22 killed (18 passengers, of 389 on board. Most Indians). 4 Palestinians. 16 hour siege.

Text copyright Paratus Defence Analysts and Consultants Limited 2004.

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